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at a glance
why the ECG
the general format
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explanatory videos

ECG Cases

I. Uncertainty about the uncertain

II. Abdominal pain: obtaining an ECG…not a bad idea
III. Known by some … ignored by many
IV. more than a nomenclature matter
V. nonspecific but clinically useful
VI. this case should follow the preceding one

ECG Essays

ECG Basic principles

Part I. Concept, clinical utility in the 21st Century and types of ECG leads

Part II. Making good quality ECGs: skin preparation, selection and proper positioning of the electrodes

Part III. Making good quality ECGs: noise, artifacts, and electrode switches

Part IV. Making good quality ECGs: ECG filters

Part V. ECG waveform polarity and display of the conventional resting ECG

Part VI. ECG nomenclature, waveforms and segments I

Part VII. ECG nomenclature, waveforms and segments II

Part VIII. ECG nomenclature, waveforms and segments III

Part IX. Heart vectors and axes in the frontal plane, and fascicular blocks

Non invasive maneuvers

Part I. General concepts
Part II. Carotid sinus massage
Part III. Valsalva maneuver, adenosine and verapamil
Part IV. Narrow QRS tachycardia: the bases
Part V. Narrow QRS complex tachycardia: general approach
Part VI. Narrow QRS regular tachycardia with RP>PR
Part VII. Narrow QRS regular tachycardia with RP<PR
Part VIII. Narrow QRS regular tachycardia with P-waves not clearly discernible
Part IX. Supraventricular wide QRS regular tachycardia
Part X. ventricular wide QRS regular tachycardia
Part XI. AV conduction defects: the bases
Part XII. AV conduction defects: maneuvers

Digitalis intoxication

Part I. Incidence, diagnosis, mechanisms

Part II. SV and V arrhythmias

Part III. regularization V rate

Part IV. atrial tachycardia

Part V. complex arrhythmias

Part VI. more on V arrhythmias

ECG Exercises


I. look attentively
II. wide and narrow QRS tachycardia in the same patient
III. on an attitudinal nomenclature
IV. PR<RP tachycardia
V. what to do first
VI. catch the differences
VII. widely surprised
VIII. RP < PR tachycardia with positive P waves in lead III
IX. an unusual ECG in a young male with palpitations
X. narrow tachycardia with positive P waves in inferior leads
XI. RP < PR tachycardia with P waves that are positive in inferior leads and negative and ‘w’-shaped in V1
XII. narrow QRS supraventricular rhythms


I. 2nd degree AV block induced by exercise
II. exercise-induced improvement of AV conduction
III. AV conduction improvement during carotid sinus massage
IV. beware of atropine in 2:1 A-V block
V. 3 questions about one case
VI. concordant bundle branch block
VII. groups of beats separated by pauses
VIII. syncope in an old lady with a narrow QRS

Inverted T waves

I. is it myocardial ischemia?
II. is it intermittent LBBB?
III. these T waves look ischemic
IV. giant negative T-waves
V. giant negative T-waves with QT prolongation
VI. chest pain and negative T-waves deeper in V1-V2 than in V3
VII. acute chest pain and negative T-waves from V1 to V4 and beyond
VIII. what do you think of these negative T-waves from V3 to V6

Complex ECGs

I. be careful about the first impression
II. complete or 2nd degree AV block?
III. a bizarre ECG waveform
IV. analyze slowly
V. escape beats with LBBB configuration in acute inferior STEMI with AV block
VI. Wide QRS tachycardia with occasional narrower beats of different configuration

Indispensable ECGs

Indispensable ECGs

I. do not overdo
II. not only valves and myocardium
III. low voltage
IV. cyanosis, dyspnea, palpitations, elevated JVP, and cardiomegaly


I. recent onset dyspnea and chronic DDD pacing
II. electromagnetic interferences or what

III. don't miss this
IV. there was a good reason

Featured ECGs

P waves

Q waves

ST segment

Implantable devices

QRS complex  



General concepts
Anterior wall STEMI
The antero-septal area and patterns of LAD occlusion
How to calculate the ST deviation vector in the frontal and horizontal planes
Localization of the site of LAD occlusion in anterior STEMI
Anterior wall STEMI and peri-infarction RBBB

Sinus node disease

AV conduction defects

Types of AV conduction defects
General clinical manifestations
First degree AV conduction defect
Mobitz type I 2nd degree AV block
Mobitz type II 2nd degree AV block
2nd degree AV block summary
2:1 2nd degree AV block
advanced 2nd degree AV block


Last modified: Monday, 9 January 2017, 11:42 AM
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